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January 2015

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Haematological changes in a fresh water fish, Anabas testudineus bloch on exposure to heavy metal toxicant cadmium...
Mini, V. S.

The study mainly focused on the effect of different concentrations of CdCl2 on haematological parameters of freshwater fish, Anabas testudineus. Serum glucose content, haematocrit, total RBC and WBC count were measured after 7, 14 and 28 days of exposure to different concentrations of CdCl2 (2ppm, 3ppm and 4ppm). 96-h LC50 of CdCl2 was 7ppm. Levels of serum glucose content were increased after 14 and 28 days of exposure to different concentrations of CdCl2 (2ppm, 3ppm and 4ppm). The...

Anxiolytic activity of leaves of Andrographis paniculata in experimental model
Trupta Malik and Harshul Malik

The Petroleum ether and Chloroform extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves was investigated for its potential to protect gastric mucosa against pylorus ligation induced ulcer and to find out the anxiolytic action in elevated plus maze model. Chloroform extract at the dose of 200mg/kg protected the gastric mucosa in the pylorus ligation ulcer induction significantly (p<0.001) when compared with that of the standard drug famotidine (10mg/kg) and acts as a potent antiulcer effect. Elevated...

Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of the rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium
Poonam Singh and Surendra Raman

The study is based on the investigation of antinociceptive activity observed from the methanolic extract of the rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium. Tail immersion method in mice has been used for the evaluation of the central pharmacological actions. Similarly acetic-acid induced writhing-test was used for the evaluation of the peripheral pharmacological properties. A substantial rise in pain threshold is seen in a dose dependent manner with the methanolic extract of the rhizomes of H....

Semisynthesis of new andrographolide derivativeswith cytotoxic activity
Dr. Deepthi Agarwal

Andrographolide is a major metabolite of the ayurvedic medicinal plant of Andrographis paniculata. In an effort to develop potent anti-cancer drugs, a new series of andrographolide derivatives (4a-4e) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against lung cancer, leukemia, breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines. The screening results revealed that the analogues display significant cytotoxic activity against tested cell lines. The dimethylacryloyl derivative...

Quality of goat’s milk in Brazil semiarid
José Crisólogo de Sales Silva, Luiz Carlos Caetano and Adibe Luiz Abdalla

Milk were analyzed in 74 goats that survive under extensive management in the Caatinga. This work was developed in the semiarid region of São José da Tapera, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, in order to assess the quality of goat milk in two communities: Settlement Mocambo and Settlement Selma Bandeira. Microbiological analyzes were performed at the Microbiology Laboratory of the Veterinary School of the Federal University of Alagoas. All animals were Brown Alpine breed. Among the pathogens...

Assessment of implementation of good manufacturing practices (GMPS) at pharmaceutical firms in Khartoum state-Sudan
Gamal Osman Elhassan, Elrashed Elrayah, Abu Bakr Abd Alrouf Alfadul, Khalid Omer Alfarouq, Jiyauddin Khan and Akhter Javed

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), the central part of quality system, is the consistent production of safe and effective product and ensuring that these activities are sustainable. It aims primarily at preventing mistakes and errors involved in any manufacturing activities, such errors are of two types’ mix-up and cross-contamination GMPs are a legal codification of sound quality principles that have been used by pharmaceutical and healthcare manufacturing industries for over 50 years, (...

Gross morphology and histology of oesophagus in adult emu birds (Dromaius novaehollandiae)
Madhu, N., Balasundaram, K., Paramasivan, S., Jayachitra, S., Vijayakumar, K. and Tamilselvan, S.

Twenty apparently healthy adult emu birds of either sex were utilized for gross and histomorpological observations. The oesophagus was a long, muscular tubular organ with highly distensible tube which is important for easily transport of food from oral cavity to proventriculus. The oesophagus originated from the caudal aspect of the oropharynx and divided into cervical and thoracic parts and no crop was found. The internal surface of the oesophagus was cream colored with number of...

Histoarchitecture of tongue in adult emu birds (Dromaius novaehollandiae)
Madhu, N., Balasundaram, K., Paramasivan, S., Sivaseelan, S., Jayachitra, S. and Vijayakumar, K.

Twenty apparently healthy adult emu birds of either sex were utilized for gross and histomorpological observations. Microscopically the tongue of emu consisted of epithelium, submucosa and lingual muscles and bones. The mucosa of the tongue was covered by keratinised stratified squamous epithelium on both dorsal and ventral surface. The dorsal and ventral epithelium was interrupted at regular intervals by ducts of lingual glands. Taste buds were observed in the intraepithelial in position....

A efficient routing protocol based on optimized cluster head election in wireless sensor network
Honghai Feng and Bo Li

Reducing energy consumption and prolonging the network lifetime are the important issues of routing protocol for wireless sensor network. The paper presents an improved algorithm of optimized cluster head election for the randomness of cluster head election and uneven energy distribution in LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy). In consideration of the location of nodes, residual energy, the number of elected cluster head and other factors as well as by LEACH analysis, the cluster...

Extraction and determination of lycopene from watermelon by different spectral techniques (UV-VIS, FTIR and GC-MS) for...
Kalaivani, G.

Lycopene is a carotenoid found in nature, it is being used for the treatment of various disorders like cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, bone health, male infertility, skin protection, and age related muscular degeneration prevention. It exhibits the highest antioxidant activity and singlet oxygen quenching ability of all dietary carotenoid. The red fleshed watermelon juice samples were analysed by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The most predominant volatiles...

Influence of peg imposed water stress and exogenous application of brassinosteroids on metabolites in radish
Balaraju, P., Ayodhya Ramulu, Ch., Venkateshwarlu, M. and Ugandhar, T.

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom in low concentrations and with structural homology to animal and insect steroids. BRs are involved in numerous physiological processes. The effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) on the metabolites content of radish (Raphanus sativus) subjected to water (osmotic) stress being imposed by polyethylene glycol was studied. Brassinosteroids supplementation under desiccation stress...

Microanatomy of ovary in laying and non-laying emu birds (Dromaius novaehollandiae)
Vijayakumar, K., Balasundaram, K., Paramasivan, S., Sivaseelan, S., Kumaravel, A. and Madhu, N.

The micronatomical observation was carried out on ovaries of six mature female emu birds at their non-laying stage and six female birds at their laying stage. The female reproductive system of the emu consisted of an unpaired ovary appearing as bunch of grapes and was covered externally by germinal epithelium consisting of a single layer of cuboidal cells. The ovarian follicles of different stages of development, atretic follicles and post ovulatory follicles (corpus luteum) were seen in the...

Comparative performance of nera black and shaver brown hens fed self-compounded and commercial layers’ diets
Oyeagu, C. E., Ani, A. O., Egbu, C. F., Udeh, F. U. and Omumuabuike, J. N.

This study was conducted to assess the performance and economic traits of feeding self-compounded layers’ diet and four commercial layers’ diets to Nera Black and Shaver Brown hens in hot humid tropical environment. A total of 120 28-weeks old Nera black hens and 120 28-weeks old Shaver brown hens were used. Each strain of bird was divided into five groups of 24 hens each and each group (for each strain) was randomly assigned to one of the five experimental diets (A, B, C, D, and E...

Performance of broiler finisher birds fed toasted bambara nut (Vigna subterranean (L) Verdc) offal with supplementary...
Oyeagu, C. E., Ani, A. O., Egbu, C. F., Akpolu, E. S., Iwuchukwu, J. C. and Omumuabuike, J. N.

The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance and cost implications of feeding varying dietary levels of toasted bambara nut offal (TBO) (0, 20, 30 and 40kg) with supplementary enzyme, 2 enzyme levels, (0 and 0.02kg) to one hundred and twenty 6-weeks old unsexed commercial broiler chicks (Anak strain) that were randomly divided into eight (treatments) groups of 15 birds each. Feed intake increased (P<0.05) significantly while Av final body weight, Av daily weight gain, Av...

A study of the citizens’ attitude towards air pollution derived from vehicles in mashhad and an assessment of the...
Mitra Mohammadi, Samaneh Roshandel and Effat Ebrahimi

The aim of this research was to study the effects of different parameters such as age, gender, and education on public awareness and culture in regard to air pollution from vehicles, its sources, and its problems in Mashhad. Using the quantitative research method and questionnaires, this research sampled 150 people living in Khayyam and Malek Abad areas (as the clean and unclean areas respectively). The results indicate that most people in this study have no particular information about air...

Biodegradation of spent engine oil by bacteria isolated from oil contaminated soil in mechanic workshop of sokoto...
Shahida, A. A., Sadiya, S., Shehu, A. and Salau, I. A.

Samples of used engine oil contaminated soil were collected from five different mechanic workshops in Sokoto metropolis to determine the presence of bacteria. Soil physicochemical parameters such as Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and others were determined. The bacteria identified include: Yersini ruckeri, Bacillus spp, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Lactobaccilus brevis, Staphylococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgar! s. Klebsiella ozanae and Flavobacterium odoratum. The isolates...

Use of vertical electrical sounding (VES) techniques to explore the groundwater potential
Hafiz Umar Farid and Allah Bakhsh

VES survey can be used to determine aquifer parameters and fresh groundwater formation below ground surface for pumping to minimize secondary salinization problems. Two VES surveys (VES 1and VES 2) were conducted at farmer’s field, in District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. Resistivity meter Tarrameter (SAS 4000, Sweden) was used to collect resistivity data. Drilling operation was performed at VES site. 100 soil and water samples were collected to analyze groundwater quality and prepare...

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